India and Pakistan have been born 75 years in the past out of a bloody division of the subcontinent by the colonial British, an occasion generally known as partition.
In the present day, the 2 nuclear powers are deeply troubled neighbours, at odds primarily over the disputed territory of Kashmir.
Listed here are key dates within the fraught relations of the nuclear-armed rivals:
1947: Partition of India
In a single day on August 14-15, 1947, Lord Louis Mountbatten, the final viceroy of India, brings the curtain down on two centuries of British rule. The Indian subcontinent is split into primarily Hindu India and Muslim-majority Pakistan.
A poorly ready partition throws life into disarray, displacing some 15 million and unleashing sectarian bloodshed that kills practically two million folks.
1949: Kashmir’s division
Late in 1947, warfare breaks out between the 2 neighbours over Kashmir, a Muslim-majority area within the Himalayas.
A United Nations-backed, 770km (478-mile) ceasefire line in January 1949 turns into a de facto frontier dividing the territory, now generally known as the Line of Management and closely militarised on each side.
Some 37 % of the territory is run by Pakistan and 63 % by India, with each claiming it in full.
1965: Second warfare
Pakistan launches a warfare in August 1965 towards India for management of Kashmir. It ends inconclusively seven weeks later after a ceasefire brokered by the Soviet Union.
1971: Bangladesh is born
The neighbours struggle a 3rd warfare in 1971 over Islamabad’s rule in then East Pakistan, with New Delhi supporting Bengali nationalists looking for independence for what would in March 1971 change into Bangladesh. Three million folks die within the quick warfare.
1974: Nuclear race
India detonates its first atomic bomb in 1974, whereas Pakistan’s first public check won’t come till Could 1998. India carries out 5 exams that 12 months and Pakistan six. Respectively the world’s sixth and seventh nuclear powers, they stoke world concern and sanctions.
1989: Kashmir rebel
An rebellion breaks out in Indian-administered Kashmir towards New Delhi’s rule in 1989, and hundreds of fighters and civilians are killed within the following years as battles between safety forces and Kashmiri rebels roil the area.
Widespread human rights abuses are documented on each side of the battle because the rebel takes maintain.
Hundreds of Kashmiri Hindus flee to different components of India from 1990 onwards fearing reprisal assaults.
1999: Kargil battle
In 1999, Pakistan-backed rebels cross the disputed Kashmir border, seizing Indian navy posts within the icy heights of the Kargil mountains.
Indian troops push the intruders again, ending the 10-week battle, which kills practically 1,000 fighters and troopers on each side. The battle ends underneath stress from the US.
A collection of assaults in 2001 and 2002, which India blames on Pakistan-based armed teams, results in a brand new mobilisation of troops on each side.
A ceasefire is asserted alongside the frontier in 2003, however a peace course of launched the next 12 months ends inconclusively.
2008: Mumbai assaults
In November 2008, a gaggle of closely armed attackers assault the Indian metropolis of Mumbai and kill 166 folks. India blames Pakistan’s intelligence service for the assault and suspends peace talks.
Contacts resume in 2011, however the scenario is marred by sporadic combating.
Indian troops stage cross-border raids in Kashmir towards separatist positions.
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi makes a shock go to in December 2015 to Pakistan.
2019: Autonomy revoked
India vows retaliation after 41 paramilitary members are killed in a 2019 suicide assault in Kashmir claimed by a Pakistan-based armed group.
Tit-for-tat air raids by the 2 nations take them to the brink of warfare.
Later that 12 months, India immediately revokes Kashmir’s restricted autonomy underneath the structure, detaining hundreds of political opponents within the territory.
Authorities impose what turns into the world’s longest web shutdown and troops are despatched to bolster the estimated half one million safety forces already stationed there.
Tens of hundreds of individuals, primarily civilians, have been killed since 1990 within the rebel.