Colombia-Venezuela border reopening raises hopes, new questions | Border Disputes News

Bogota, Colombia – Residents on each side of the Colombia-Venezuela border turned out en masse this week to welcome the reopening of the Simon Bolivar Worldwide Bridge.

Two industrial vehicles – lined within the two nations’ respective flags, together with phrases of friendship and balloons – rumbled across the important thing border level, as distributors stood behind piles of meals, water, and bathroom paper, hoping to promote items to Venezuelans crossing the stretch on foot.

Colombian President Gustavo Petro, who was flanked by authorities officers from each nations throughout an official ceremony on the bridge on Monday, hailed the reopening as “an enormous leap ahead for human rights alongside all the Venezuelan-Colombian frontier”.

The day marked the top of a seven-year border closure to vehicles and freight, and the resumption of air journey between Colombia and Venezuela. Maybe extra symbolically, nonetheless, it represented the start of an finish to years of escalating tensions.

“We’re comfortable that it will permit extra commerce from Colombia into Venezuela,” stated Maria, a fruit vendor within the Colombian border city of Villa del Rosario, who solely gave Al Jazeera her first identify. “This may convey new clients and can assist struggling communities on the border.”

People line Simon Bolivar Bridge between Colombia and Venezuela during a reopening ceremony
Individuals lined the bridge in the course of the reopening ceremony on September 26 [Joseph Bouchard/Al Jazeera]

In style assist

The choice to reopen the border is broadly widespread amongst residents on each side of the frontier, which has seen a dramatic rise in violence in recent times as legal armed teams battled to regulate smuggling routes.

On the marketing campaign path, Petro – who took office in August – had stated re-establishing diplomatic relations with Venezuela, severed underneath former President Ivan Duque in 2019, and reopening the border have been elementary first steps in his push to finish armed battle in Colombia — an formidable plan he calls “Complete Peace”.

The transfer additionally has been cautiously endorsed by Colombian commerce unions and service provider teams in close by Cucuta, who’ve proposed the constructing of a transportation and transport hub to facilitate worldwide commerce. The Colombian authorities says a resumption in commerce between the 2 nations may quantity to upwards of $600m this year.

However some worldwide observers have expressed issues about Petro’s shortly thawing relationship with Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro, who additionally welcomed the border reopening as the beginning of a new relationship primarily based on “brotherhood, respect and peace”.

“There’s a excessive stage of concern inside the US authorities relating to the present president’s embrace of the brand new left in Latin America and the tacit rejection of defence cooperation with the US,” stated a defence official on the US Embassy in Colombia, who requested that his identify be withheld resulting from a scarcity of authority to talk for diplomatic workers.

“That is detrimental for the general safety of each nations and to the state of relations between our two nations.”

Bettering safety

Many consultants in Colombia, nonetheless, hope that the border opening can finally result in elevated safety within the area for migrants and residents alike.

“For migrants, from a human rights perspective, this can be a large enchancment,” stated Bram Ebus, a marketing consultant on the Worldwide Disaster Group in Colombia. “Crossing by means of official channels moderately than informal smuggling paths means they aren’t weak to killings, tortures, compelled recruitment and rape by the hands of armed teams.”

Nearly seven million Venezuelans have fled their nation since 2014 amid deteriorating circumstances, the overwhelming majority passing by means of Colombia to take action. Residents who reside within the area additionally repeatedly cross the border each day for work, in addition to to purchase items, attend college and go to medical appointments.

Ebus cautioned that expectations must be tempered as as to if the reopening will utterly resolve long-standing safety and contraband points on the border. He stated smugglers may use formal transport channels between the 2 nations, as effectively – and in reality, some would possibly favor these official channels over the casual border routes managed by rival legal teams.

“We all know that cocaine and gold smugglers have used official crossings just like the Simon Bolívar Bridge prior to now, and that state forces on each side of the border have been complicit in these schemes,” he informed Al Jazeera.

For instance, in July, native politicians in Cucuta have been linked to a toddler intercourse ring that exploited Venezuelan and Colombian ladies, in collaboration with Colombian police and organised crime teams, native media reported.

Giant sections of the frontier exterior of Cucuta are successfully exterior state management, which Ebus stated makes rebuilding “state capacities and civil constructions” vital to addressing security needs within the area.

“Endemic corruption have to be addressed amongst public officers as a part of any reform. We additionally know that migrants are additionally typically extorted by migration officers and police themselves,” he added.

Peace course of

Carlos Velandia, an ex-commander with the National Liberation Army (ELN) insurgent group and advocate for a brand new peace course of in Colombia, stated he hoped the border reopening will result in “collaboration [on] safety and peace-building” between the 2 nations.

ELN, the largest remaining rebel group in Colombia, funds its actions by means of drug trafficking, extortion and human smuggling within the borderlands. It has expanded in each territory and numbers for the reason that 2016 peace cope with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and is now believed to boast greater than 2,400 full-time fighters, along with an unknown variety of auxiliary members and sympathisers.

“Seventy % of ELN forces function within the Venezuelan border areas,” Velandia informed Al Jazeera, including that “prior to now, their presence was tolerated” as a deterrent to what Venezuela considered as the opportunity of Colombian aggression.

“However improved relations between the 2 nations now make their presence inconvenient for Maduro,” Velandia stated. “This might generate stress for ELN to take new proposed peace talks [with the Colombian government] extra severely and negotiate in good religion.”

Petro has stated his authorities plans to barter straight with armed teams, in addition to reform the Colombian safety forces, who’ve in recent times been accused of grave human rights violations.

ELN has agreed to peace negotiations with the Petro administration, and preliminary talks have already begun in Cuba, the place many ELN commanders have lived in exile since earlier talks with the Colombian authorities have been deserted in 2019.

Petro seems to be celebrating the easing of border closures as an early victory in his time period – one which he’ll want as he makes an attempt to undertake his formidable new peace plans.

“We stored our phrase,” Petro tweeted on Monday, referring to the guarantees he made throughout his marketing campaign. “Could the opening of the border be an announcement of prosperity for Colombia, Venezuela and the entire Americas.”

Further reporting from Cucuta, Colombia by Joseph Bouchard.

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